ISO 19136-2

Working Group 
Reference Status/Date Name WG

ISO 19136-2:2015

2015-08-04 Geographic information — Geography Markup Language (GML) —
Part 2: Extended schemas and encoding rules



The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML encoding in compliance with ISO 19118 for the transport and storage of geographic information modelled in accordance with the conceptual modelling framework used in the ISO 19100- series of International Standards and including both the spatial and non-spatial properties of geographic features.

This part of ISO 19136 defines the XML Schema syntax, mechanisms and conventions that:

  • provide an open, vendor-neutral framework for the description of geospatial application schemas for the transport and storage of geographic information in XML;
  • allow profiles that support proper subsets of GML framework descriptive capabilities;
  • support the description of geospatial application schemas for specialized domains and information communities;
  • enable the creation and maintenance of linked geographic application schemas and datasets;
  • support the storage and transport of application schemas and datasets;
  • increase the ability of organizations to share geographic application schemas and the information they describe.

Implementers may decide to store geographic application schemas and information in GML, or they may decide to convert from some other storage format on demand and use GML only for schema and data transport.

This part of ISO 19136 builds on ISO 19136:2007 (GML 3.2), and extends it with additional schema components and requirements.

NOTE If an ISO 19109 conformant application schema described in UML is used as the basis for the storage and transportation of geographic information, this part of ISO 19136 provides normative rules for the mapping of such an application schema to a GML application schema in XML Schema and, as such, to an XML encoding for data with a logical structure in accordance with the ISO 19109 conformant application schema.


Document Normative References:

ISO 19136:2007, Geographic information — Geography Markup Language (GML)

ISO 19148:2012, Geographic information — Linear referencing

OGC Technical Committee Policies and Procedures: MIME Media Types for GML1)

ISO 8601:2004, Data elements and interchange formats — Information interchange — Representation of dates and times

ISO/IEC 13249-3:2011, Information technology — Database languages — SQL multimedia and application packages — Part 3: Spatial


Referenced from active ISO/TC 211 standard:


Model References:


Supporting the following Sustainable Development Goals: